Natural Language Processing or simply NLP is the field of Artificial Intelligence that focuses on the manipulation of text or speech to create the machine of futures. Thus useless texts can be converted into a source of information with the help of Natural Language Processing.
But even before learning how NLP can convert useless text into something informative, why we even need to convert texts? Out of all the text information present out there on the internet, only 21% is formatted good enough to get something useful. The other 89% text does contain information but it is present in scrambled form. That’s why we are using NLP a lot these days,
Some companies are even using NLP to make some cool machines. E.g. IBM’s Project Debater, an AI robot capable of debating with humans,
What Are The Different Techniques Used in NLP?
Semantic and Syntax analysis are the two most techniques of Natural Language Processing. Below is a brief introduction to how these two works.
Syntax analysis refers to the arrangement of the words in a particular order so that they make a meaningful sentence. It is the process of analyzing natural language with the rules of formal grammar. Grammatical rules are applied to categories and groups of words, not individual words. The syntactic analysis assigns a semantic structure to text.
E.g. While making an English sentence we apply the general rule that a sentence should have a noun, a verb, and an optional subject in it.
Semantic analysis means to check the correctness of a language. Not always a noun and a verb combination are enough to make a sense. E.g. “cows flow supremely” is a complete in it as it has both a noun and a verb but this doesn’t make any sense to the user.
So, therefore, semantic analysis helps Computer generate something logical or meaningful.
A brief process of how Natural Language Processing works.
Natural Language Processing is not a single step process but rather several steps.
Step 1: Sentence Segmentation
Sentence Segmentation means that the computer first will break a paragraph into many different sentences. Consider the following paragraph
- He knew what he was supposed to do. That had been apparent from the beginning. That was what made the choice so difficult. What he was supposed to do and what he would do were not the same. This would have been fine if he were willing to face the inevitable consequences, but he wasn’t.